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 The Rain`

It was a busy
morning, about 8:30, when an elderly
gentleman in his 80's arrived to have
stitches removed from his thumb.
He said he was in a hurry as he had an
appointment at 9:00 am.
I took his vital
signs and had him take a seat,
knowing it would be over an hour
before someone
would to able to see him.
I saw him looking at his watch and
decided, since I
was not busy with another patient,
I would evaluate his wound.
On exam, it was
well healed, so I talked to one of the
doctors, got the needed supplies to
remove his sutures and redress his wound.

While taking care of
his wound, I asked him if he
had another doctor's appointment
this morning, as
he was in such a hurry.

The gentleman told me no, that he
needed to go to
the nursing home to eat breakfast
with his wife. I inquired as to her
health.

He told me that
she had been there
for a while and that she
was a victim of Alzheimer's Disease.

As we
talked, I asked if she would be
upset if he was a bit late.

He
replied that she no longer knew
who he was, that she had not
recognized him in
five years now.

I was surprised, and asked him,
'And you still go every
morning, even though she
doesn't know who you are?'

He smiled as he
patted my hand and said,

'She doesn't
know me, but I still know who she is.'


I had to hold back
tears as he left, I had goose bumps
on my arm, and thought,

'That is
the kind of love I want in my life.'

True love is
neither physical, nor romantic.

True love is an
acceptance of all that is,
has been, will be, and will not
be.

The
happiest people don't necessarily
have the best of everything;
they just make
the best of everything they have.



'Life isn't about
how to survive the storm,
But how to dance
in the rain.'
We are all getting Older
Tomorrow may be our turn.``
Rose!

 
 





Compared with the hustle and bustle of waking life, sleep looks dull and unworkmanlike. Except for in its dreams, a sleeping brain doesn't misbehave or find a job. It also doesn't love, scheme, aspire or really do much we would be proud to take credit for. Yet during those quiet hours when our mind is on hold, our brain does the essential labor at the heart of all creative acts. It edits itself. And it may throw out a lot.

In a provocative new theory about the purpose of sleep, neuroscientist Giulio Tononi of the University of Wisconsin–Madison has proposed that slumber, to cement what we have learned, must also spur the brain's undoing. As the conscious mind settles into sleep, the neural connections that create a scaffold for our knowledge must partially unravel, his theory suggests. Although this nightly dismantling might seem like a curious act of cerebral self-sabotage, it may in fact be a mechanism for enhancing the brain's capacity to encode and store new information.

The benefits of sleep for learning and memory are widely accepted in the scientific community. The prevailing view holds that recently formed memories are replayed during sleep and in the process become more sharply etched in the brain [see "Quiet! Sleeping Brain at Work," by Robert Stickgold and Jeffrey M. Ellenbogen; Scientific American Mind, August/September 2008]. As Tononi surmised, however, the neural circuits buttressing those memories can be fortified only so many times before reaching their maximum strength. He and his colleagues have gathered evidence that sleep also serves as a reset button, uniformly loosening neural connections throughout the brain to put this organ back in a flexible state in which learning can take place.

The theory is still controversial. Some sleep researchers consider the evidence for it too preliminary, favoring the conventional wisdom of sleep as a time of memory consolidation and reinforcement. Still, if Tononi is right, sleep may not be just for curating memories of the recent past. It may also set aside space for memories of experiences we have not yet had.

Saturated Pixels?
Learning occurs when an experience—listening to new music, say, or navigating an unfamiliar city—imposes a pattern of activity on groups of neurons. The pattern alters the cells' interconnections: ties among co-active neurons grow stronger, and those among out-of-step neurons weaken. In this way, the cells become functionally lassoed together. This coalition becomes dedicated to preserving a specific fragment of experience—a memory. During later offline periods—sleep in particular—the pattern stamped in by experience gets replayed, leading to cellular changes that stabilize the pattern.

A decade or so ago most psychologists conceived of sleep as this recap of daytime learning. Yet Tononi sensed a potential problem: if the junctions among neurons—synapses—were being ratcheted tighter and stronger over consecutive nights and days, t

In addition, Tononi noticed that the intensity of this deep slumber—measured as amplitude in recordings of brain waves—dies down as the night progresses. Both observations struck him as examples of homeostasis, the push and pull of opposing forces to maintain equilibrium in a biological system. Slow-wave sleep seemed to be pulling the brain back to some kind of equilibrium that being awake had disturbed.

Tononi considered which biological process might underlie the changes in slow-wave sleep. He knew that its intensity is correlated with overall synapse strength. When neurons fire in unison, they drive groups of these neural junctions to activate in synchrony. Electric current flowing through them creates the slow-wave signal that is recorded with electrode pads on the scalp. Tononi surmised that being awake may lead to a proliferation or strengthening of synapses and that the initial high intensity of slow-wave sleep reflects these very strong cell networks. If synapses somehow weaken or break down during this period of sleep, their loss could explain why the sleep signals shrank during the night.

To support his conjecture, which he dubbed "synaptic homeostasis," Tononi wanted to look directly at how synapses differed between sleep and wakefulness. In a study published in 2008 he and his collaborators harvested brain tissue from rats, some of which had been sleeping and others that had been awake. For each tissue sample, the researchers used radioactive antibodies to selectively tag several proteins that exist only at synapses. They found that many of these proteins were significantly scarcer in snoozing rats than in awake ones. Their conclusion: fewer synapses exist in the sleeping brain, or else these synapses have, on average, less of the machinery they need for effective communication—that is, they are weaker.

Further support for this view came from a study published in 2010 by Xiao-Bing Gao of Yale University and his colleagues. In collaboration with Tononi, Gao's team recorded electrical activity from individual neurons in slices of brain tissue that they took from both dozing and alert rodents. Neurons constantly chatter with one another by way of small electric currents that shuttle through their synapses. The more current flowing through a synapse, the stronger the synapse. Neurons from previously awake rodents received more vigorous barrages of current than did those from sleeping animals, indicating that neurons in the sleeping brain are connected by fewer or weaker synapses. The results hint that the brain flips between strongly and weakly connected states on a day-night cycle.

Sleepless Flies
If sleep remodels synapses, researchers should be able to see structural signs of these changes. The synapses through which neurons communicate can vary in number and size. In general, the more synapses and the bigger those synapses are, the more electrical "information" can travel between two connected neurons.

Scientists can visualize synapses by sticking fluorescent tags onto the proteins that work at either side of the synaptic gap. In 2011 Tononi, together with Wisconsin neuroscientists Daniel Bushey and Chiara Cirelli, reported using these techniques to track the size and number of synapses in fruit flies. They forced some of the flies to stay awake by putting them in a revolving box—at the top of the rotation, snoozing flies would fall and wake up—to see if staving off sleep would prevent the shrinking and retraction of synapses. In striking agreement with Tononi's hypothesis, they saw a significantly higher density of synapses and considerably larger synapses—in some cases, twice as large—in brains of flies that had been forced to stay awake compared with brains of sleeping flies.

In an even more recent study from 2011 Tononi and his team have extended these results to mice. By labeling neurons in the cortex, or outer rind, of the mouse brain with fluorescent indicators, the researchers could watch the growth and retraction of spines—the tiny, knoblike protrusions on neurons where synapses are made. They saw that the overall density of synapses increased with wakefulness, remained high when the mice were sleep-deprived and decreased only after sleep was allowed.


Bedtime Tonic
Before synaptic homeostasis can be hailed as the main reason we sleep, however, investigators must provide better proof that some measurable aspect of neural function—learning, memory or perception, for example—is improved by the shrinking and dismantling of synapses and impaired when these activities are somehow curtailed. Such evidence will be difficult to dig up. If and when it surfaces, Tononi's ideas could add considerable nuance to the established notion that sleep serves to cement memories by strengthening synapses forged during the day.

Intuitively, we know that sleep is restorative, and many colorful metaphors have tried to capture this idea. Sleep is a tonic. Sleep is a balm. As Shakespeare put it, sleep "knits up the ravell'd sleave of care." He couldn't possibly have known that sleep may renew us by undoing in the brain some of what the day knits, so that we can live to learn another day.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WARM REGARDS,

Akhtar khatri
*****help what we can with others in need...the world is ONE big family*****




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 Cutest lines from a Guy ♥
The reason,
Why my parents don't allow me to
play with Doll
.
.
.
.
Its because they want to teach me
from my childhood that"Girls
aren't toys to play with..." ♥

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WARM REGARDS,

Akhtar khatri
*****help what we can with others in need...the world is ONE big family*****




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The founder of this sandwich is a British chef and restaurateur Tristan Welch. Its easy to be the most beef sandwich in the world, since it contains more than 40 different pieces of meat, including sausage, ham, turkey, bacon ... Weight sandwich - 13 pounds. Tristan believes that the person would need at least 10 hours to eat a creature of meat, bread, gravy and vegetables. Bon appetit :)





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Some of these Satellites are used for various different things. From television broadcasts to studying the stars. Losing the signal of my TV would never happen again.

10. The Dish, USA
Diameter: 150 feet (46 meters)


Ensconced in the foothills of Stanford, CA, the radio telescope known simply as The Dish is a landmark visited by around 1,500 people every day. Yet, while undoubtedly a popular site for hikers and joggers, The Dish is also actually still operational today, used by both academics and other researchers. Built by the Stanford Research Institute in 1966, this 150-foot-diameter (46m) behemoth was initially intended for study into the chemical make-up of our atmosphere but, with its powerful radar antenna, was later used for communication with satellites and spacecraft — notably the Voyager probes sent forth to explore the outer solar system.

9. Algonquin Radio Observatory, Canada
Diameter: 150 feet (46 meters)


The Algonquin Radio Observatory is to be found in the verdant Algonquin Provincial Park in Ontario, Canada. The centerpiece of the observatory is its 150-foot (46m) parabolic dish ("parabolic" refers to the curved surface that directs the radio waves), which became famous in the 1960s for its participation in the earliest successful tests of a technique known as "very long baseline interferometry" (VLBI). VLBI allows for the simultaneous observations of an object by many telescopes to be combined — leading to far more powerful results. Nowadays, the Algonquin site is active as a control point for GPS and is operated by Thoth Technology. With a dish this big, we bet they could also pick up some interesting TV shows!

8. Large Millimeter Telescope, Mexico
Diameter: 164 feet (50 meters)

Mexico's Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a relatively recent addition to the list of largest single-dish radio telescopes. Inaugurated in 2006, this 164-foot (50m) instrument constitutes the biggest and most responsive single-aperture telescope for observing radio waves in its own frequency range (approximately 0.85 to 4 mm, in case you were wondering!). Providing astronomers with valuable information regarding star formation, the LMT is located in the state of Puebla and sits atop the Sierra Negra — the fifth highest mountain in Mexico. A joint Mexican and American project, it cost $116 million and took ten years to be built.

7. Parkes Observatory, Australia
Diameter: 210 feet (64 meters)


Completed in 1961, Australia's Parkes Observatory was one of several radio receivers used to pick up live TV transmissions of the lunar landing in 1969. As well as being part of this auspicious moment in history, the Observatory continued to provide NASA with valuable information during their other moon missions, relaying signals and providing coverage when our only natural satellite was on the Australian side of the Earth. More recently, between 1997 and 2002, it undertook the largest blind survey in search of neutral atomic hydrogen galaxies. Also on the CV: more than 50 percent of presently known pulsars — rotating neutron stars — were discovered at Parkes. Not a bad record for this beautiful-looking — and movable — 210-foot (64m) radio dish telescope.

6. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, USA
Diameter: 230 feet (70 meters)


Commonly known as the Goldstone Observatory, this next astronomical site is situated in the expanse of California's Mojave Desert. One of three similarly constructed complexes , the other two are located in Madrid, Spain and Canberra, Australia — Goldstone is home to a dish, known as the Mars antenna, which is 230 feet (70m) in diameter. This highly sensitive radio telescope — which was actually modeled on, and later upgraded to be bigger than, that of Australia's Parkes Observatory — provides scientists with information that helps in the mapping of quasars, comets, planets, asteroids and more. The Goldstone complex has also proven its worth in the search for high-energy neutrino transmissions on the moon. Reckon it can pick up 3rd Rock From the Sun, as well?

5. Yevpatoria RT-70 Radio Telescope, Ukraine
Diameter: 230 feet (70 meters)


The group of three RT-70 radio telescopes that were developed by the Soviet Union is made up of the Yevpatoria planetary radar in the Ukraine together with those of Suffa — on the Suffa plateau in Uzbekistan — and Galenki (Ussuriysk) in Russia. They all share similar specifications, notably their 230-foot (70m) diameter dishes. The Yevpatoria telescope, in particular, has been used to observe asteroids and space debris. It is also known for the A Message From Earth (AMFE) project, in which, on 9 October 2008, a high-powered digital radio signal was beamed out towards Gliese 581c — a so-called "Super-Earth" (a planet whose mass is much higher than Earth's but less than that of our solar system's gas giants). If Gliese 581c supports life, perhaps the inhabitants will send us back some of their own TV! However, we'll have to wait until the message reaches the planet in 2029.

The United Kingdom's Lovell Telescope — a radio telescope whose dish measures an impressive 250 feet (76m) in diameter — is located at Jodrell Bank Observatory in the north-west of England. Built in 1955, it was originally known simply as the "250ft telescope," but was renamed after one of its creators, Bernard Lovell, in 1987. Among the telescope's most notable achievements was the confirmation of the existence of the pulsar — then only recently discovered — in 1968 (with investigation into pulsars still very much ongoing at the observatory). The Lovell Telescope was also instrumental in the discovery of quasars — extremely luminous celestial bodies thought to be among the most distant object in the universe.

3. Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope, Germany
Diameter: 250 feet (76 meters)


The Effelsberg Radio Telescope is situated just outside of Effelsburg, a village in the southeastern potion of Bad Münstereifel, a town in western Germany. Built between 1968 and 1971, the telescope is operated by the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn. Equipped to observe pulsars, star formations and the nuclei of distant galaxies, Effelsberg is one of the most important instruments in the world's network of super-powerful telescopes. Since it began its work in the early 1970s, ongoing improvements have been made — including low-noise electronics and a new surface for the dish — which have helped keep it among the elite of astronomical research institutions.

2. Green Bank Telescope, USA
Diameter: 328 feet (100 meters)


The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope is located in the state of West Virginia, nestled in the middle of the United States National Radio Quiet Zone — an area of limited or banned radio transmissions, which greatly helps the telescope in operating to its highest potential. The telescope, which was completed in 2002, took eleven years to construct. Equipped with its massive 328-foot (100 m) dish, this fully steerable telescope has made several notable discoveries, including the discovery of the hydrogen gas-based Ophiuchus "superbubble," which is located 23,000 light years distant.

1. Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico
Diameter: 1,001 feet (305 meters)


The largest curved focusing dish on Earth by far is to be found in the Arecibo Observatory near the city of the same name in Puerto Rico. Operated by SRI International — a research institute born out of Stanford University — and with supervision from the National Science Foundation, the Observatory engages in radio astronomy, radar observations of the solar system and the study of the atmospheres of other planets. The enormous dish was built in 1963 inside the depression caused by a naturally occurring sinkhole. This somehow seems apt, as data about naturally occurring phenomena — albeit millions of miles away — interacts with man-made technology in the most wondrous of ways at Arecibo.
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